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Home » Pedagogy » Teaching Strategies » Conceptualizing Chapter 8

Conceptualizing Chapter 8

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Conceptualizing Chapter 8
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Sustaining Economic Development

 

What is the purpose of the chapter?

How does Chapter 8 connect to other chapters?

 

How do we understand the multi-faceted impact of globalisation?


  • Connections between the different dimensions (effects from political, cultural and economic mutually reinforce each other)
  • Balanced perspectives needed on all dimensions.

 

How do national economic strategies aimed at helping Singapore thrive in a globalizing world demonstrate governance in action?

 

  • Changing to stay relevant: taking chances with new, niche industries
  • Reward for work and work for reward, opportunities: foreign talent policies, encouraging Singaporeans to venture forth in foreign markets.

 

How are issues related to Bonding Singapore also evident here?


  • Challenges with influx and residency of foreigners. Developing a sense of belonging for them, encouraging locals to play a part in integrating them in society.
  • Sense of belonging for Singaporeans living abroad. Recall the debate about dual citizenship (possibility of allowing Singaporeans take on another citizenship) that took place a few years back.

 

 

What do I already know about the workings and how would I assess Singapore’s success in sustaining economic development?

What do my students already know/what are my students’ existing perceptions?

 

What are my personal opinions? 

How will I assess the success of the approach? 

How can I find out/shape my students perceptions?

 

Singapore’s economic development and successes are explained and analyzed in a wide variety of sources but it is important for yourself and your students to be able to explain these developments and successes in a balanced manner – neither taking it for granted nor recognizing only its successes.


 

What are the different ways through which to develop an appreciation of the chapter?

 

Getting my students to appreciate globalization at a personal level

 

Spheres of communications, commerce, education are areas which students will be more familiar with, suitable avenues to help them appreciate the real effects of globalization.

 

Bringing in more global perspectives on globalization

 

Points of views from developing countries, marginalized peoples in developed countries to show the negative aspects of globalization from more authentic voices as well as to challenge the idea that globalization is all-pervasive.

 

Critical evaluation of Singapore’s economic strategies

 

Limitations of past and present strategies. Try to surface the negative effects of strategies, i.e. benefits not felt by more, unintended consequences, costs of implementing strategies may outweigh the benefits. Examples: the emphasis on MNCs in the early period may have had consequences on how local entrepreneurship has only taken off in recent times.

 

The Suzhou Industrial Park has been suggested as an example of a foreign venture that entails very high costs (but the benefits in terms of impact on Singapore-China relations may be priceless). The losses made by Temasek Holdings in foreign bank/stock acquisitions have received much media attention in recent times, and it does show the Singapore’s investments do have a high level of exposure to international economic cycles.

 

Role of regional/international economic organizations and agreements


  • APEC
  • WTO
  • IMF

 

What are the possibilities for active participation here?

 

  • Potential for global citizenship education as students can be encouraged to think as global citizens over and above being Singapore citizens.
  • Role in understanding how issues that affect Singapore affect people in different societies differently
  • Areas: Environmental management, economic development.

 

Resources

The links cover resources that look at key approaches and evaluation of Singapore’s globalization strategies, including the effects of economic globalization including regionalization and foreign talent issues; the connections between globalization and education as well as global multicultural education in Singapore

 

gov.sg on Finance and Economy policies

 

Economic Development Board

 

Govt of Singapore Investment Corporation

 

Gaining from Globalisation in S'pore?

 

Phelps, N. (2007). Gaining from Globalization? State Extraterritoriality and Domestic Economic Impacts—The Case of Singapore. Economic Geography Vol. 83 No. 4, pp. 371–393.

 

States have authored elements of globalization—deploying strategies to exert themselves extraterritorially. Such extraterritorial dimensions of state strategy are intimately connected to economic interests—although the economic interests in question and the geographic manifestations of extraterritoriality have varied historically for individual nation-states and continue to vary among different nation-states. This article examines one important example of this phenomenon.

 

The rapid industrialization of Singapore at a time of rapid international economic integration has created a unique degree of urgency, depth, and breadth among contemporary state strategies of extraterritoriality. Drawing upon original research on joint-venture industry and technology parks in China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and India, the article examines the extent and nature of economic benefits to the Singapore economy leveraged through this particular strategy of extraterritorialization. The modest scale of these benefits confirms both the limits of state strategies that are aimed at, and elite discourses regarding, “gaining from globalization.”

 

Lessons from regionalisation program

Yeung, H. (2000). State intervention and neoliberalism in the globalizing world economy: lessons from Singapore’s regionalization programme. The Pacific Review, Vol. 13 No. 1. pp. 133­ 162.

 

The recent 1997­-98 Asian economic crisis has thrown Asia’s divergent pathways to development into serious question. Protagonists of neoliberalism argue that their agenda is now becoming a global orthodoxy when several ailing Asian economies have accepted IMF packages which come with neoliberal economic programmes. Drawing on lessons from Singapore’s regionalization programme, this article contends that it is far too early to conclude that Asian developmental states are giving up their governance of domestic economies. Instead, there is evidence that these Asian developmental states are re-regulating their domestic economies to ride out of the economic crisis.

 

The article starts with the debate between neoliberalism and state developmentalism in our understanding of global political economy. It then examines the political economy of Singapore’s regionalization programme through which Singapore-based transnational corporations are strongly encouraged by the state to regionalize their operations, followed by a critical discussion of the impact of the recent Asian economic crisis on the re-regulation of the regionalization programme by the state in Singapore. Some lessons for Asian emerging economies are suggested in the concluding section.

 

Singapore surviving the downside of globalisation

Latif, A. (2004). Singapore: Surviving the Downside of Globalization. Southeast Asian Affairs 2004. pp. 225-238.

 

Singapore globalising on its own terms
Chong, T. (2006). Singapore Globalizing  on  Its Own Terms. Southeast Asian Affairs 2006. pp. 265-282.

 

 Perceptions of citizenship S'pore as Cosmopolis

Ho, E. (2006). Negotiating belonging and perceptions of citizenship in a transnational world: Singapore, a cosmopolis? Social & Cultural Geography, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 385-401.


The complex mappings of inflows and outflows of people, capital, images and ideas in

global city spaces create particular challenges for nation-states that are deeply embedded

in the international circuit of capital. Through an empirical study of Singapore, an

aspiring global city-state, I offer an analysis of how the state-sponsored cosmopolitan project is contested by Singapore citizens. I also present evidence to highlight the

contradictions of belonging and citizenship in a transnational world, with particular

reference to the postcolonial racial and nationality dynamics that inflect these discourses.

 

 Globalisation and Educational Policy

Gopinathan, S. (2007). Globalisation, the Singapore developmental state and education policy: a thesis revisited. Globalisation, Societies and Education. Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 53–70.

 

 Global Multicultural Education in S'pore

Ho, L.C. (2009). Global Multicultural Citizenship Education: A Singapore Experience. The Social Studies. Nov/Dec 2009. pp. 285-293.

 

In a world that is, on the one hand, determined to sustain distinct national and group identities and, on the other hand, becoming increasingly globalized, interconnected and interdependent, social studies educators are regularly faced with the challenge of supporting diversity, creating a unified national community, and promoting global perspectives through education.

 

This paper explores how the Singapore education system addresses these disparate goals through its national social studies curriculum for secondary schools, particularly through its use of international case studies. The Singapore social studies curriculum also serves as an interesting case study of how a national social studies curriculum has been shifted away from an exclusive focus on a nation-centric paradigm to one that is more globally oriented in nature, while still being firmly anchored to the nation-state and its priorities.

 

 

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